OCS/SCS Question(s) of the Month

May Question of the Month

MAYqom

Test your OCS and SCS test taking skills with these 2 questions:

Questions are all based on the following case that my colleagues and I published in the Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy.

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Question #1

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A 23-year-old patient presents to a physician with numbness and tingling in the plantar surfaces of her first and second toes of her right foot.  Symptoms in toes would initially present with walking and running in her toes, but eventually progressed to full lower leg numbness when taking only a few steps.  Symptoms then progressed to the point where walking would elicit severe lower leg cramping which would ultimately force her to stop walking.

What is the most likely diagnosis? 

A. Deep peroneal nerve entrapment

B. Peroneal Artery Entrapment

C. Popliteal Artery Entrapment

D. L4-L5 Disc Herniation

 

 

3

 

What is the most likely diagnosis? 

A. Deep peroneal nerve entrapment

  • For this patient, the physician ordered a MRI which confirmed an osteochondroma over the posterior tibial metaphysis compressing the popliteal artery.
  • What appears to start as nerve pain progresses to cramping which could be due to a vascular issue.

B. Peroneal Artery Entrapment

  • Answer choice B is a good option, but not the best.
  • With a peripheral nerve entrapment you would not suspect entire lower leg numbness.
  • With a deep peroneal nerve entrapment you could experience numbness or tingling in the web scape of the 1st and 2nd
  • Her symptoms started on the plantar surfaces of her first and second toes.

C. Popliteal Artery Entrapment

  • Peroneal artery entrapment is very unlikely since it is a branch of the popliteal artery, and would likely affect only one compartment of the lower leg and not the entire lower leg.

D. L4-L5 Disc Herniation

  • Answer choice D is a good option.
  • If a patient has stenosis due to degenerative conditions or a disc herniation, you could get symptoms into the toes and even neurogenic claudication.
  • However, the patient in this case doesn’t fit those clinical patterns. She’s too young to have lumbar stenosis.

 

4

  • We know that the sciatic nerve comes down from the lumbar nerve roots.
  • And splits into the Tibial nerve and the common peroneal nerve which provides sensory innervation to the anterolateral aspect of the lower leg.
  • The common peroneal nerve then breaks down into the deep peroneal nerve which provides sensory innervation in the web space of the 1st and 2nd toes
  • And the superfical peroneal nerve provides sensory innervation to the anterolateral foot.

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  • Now, the patient’s primary complaint prior to symptoms worsening was numbness and tingling in the 1st and 2nd
  • The tibial nerve splits into the lateral plantar nerve and the medial plantar nerve.
  • One could hypothesize that the osteochondroma at the tibial metaphysisi affected the tibial nerve more than the common peroneal nerve, since the common peroneal nerve runs more posterolaterall than the tibial nerve.

 

Question #2

6

  • The patient had the osteochondroma resected surgically. She performed a bout of rehabilitation focusing on ROM, Strengthening and balance. She still reported intermittent numbness and tingling in her first two toes.
  • Two years after the osteochondroma was removed.
  • The patient was evaluated by a physician for a new complaint of cramping in right anterolateral lower leg with running less than two minutes.
  • As well as numbness and tingling in her first and second toes.
  • Cramping would worsen with activities such as walking, running or using the elliptical
  • And dissipate with rest.
  • The only relevant finding from the physician’s initial examination was decreased sensation to light touch over the right anterolateral compartment.
  • The physician was concerned with two pathologies: Stress fracture and chronic exertional compartment syndrome. A bone scan ruled out a stress fracture.
  • One-minute exertional compartment testing yielded 36 mmHG in the lateral compartment and 54 mmHG in the anterior compartment.
  • The left leg revealed 31 mmHG in the lateral compartment and 45 mmHG in the anterior compartment
  • Values greater than 30 mm Hg are indicative of chronic exertional compartment syndrome.
  • The patient was then referred to a surgeon.

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  • The surgeon, noted tenderness along the anterolateral compartments and based on compartment pressure testing recommended bilateral anterolateral fasciotomies.
  • The interesting aspect about this decision is that it appeared the patient was only complaining of symptoms in the right leg.

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  • Three weeks after the bilateral anterolateral fasciotomies the patient presented to PT.
  • Here you can see the body chart she filled out prior to the visit.

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  • During the subjective history she complained of some post operative soreness.
  • I clarified all the past medical history which we just reviewed.
  • Her hip ROM and MMT was WNL at the hip knee and ankle.
  • She had trace swelling in the compartments of the lower leg.
  • Otherwise, the examination was insignificant.
  • So, I gave her some general ROM and strengthening exercises, such as bridge, SLR, and a gastrocnemius stretch.
  • While I was printing these exercises for her I had her ride a stationary bike.
  • After I printed the exercises I checked up on her, and she reported numbness and tingling on the planar surfaces of her first and 2nd toes of her right foot.
  • There was no cramping in the anterolateral compartments.
  • At this point, the patient was extremely disappointed because she thought that the surgery would have resolved these symptoms.

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What compartment are the patient’s symptoms associated with?

 A. Anterior

B. Posterior

C. Lateral

D. Deep posterior

 

 

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What compartment are the patient’s symptoms associated with?

 A. Anterior

B. Posterior

C. Lateral

D, Deep posterior

  • The answer is D.
    • The patient’s symptoms of numbness and tingling are associated with the tibial nerve, which run through the deep posterior compartment.

5

  • As we know, the sciatic nerve descends from the lumbar roots down the posterior aspect of the thigh and splits into the tibial nerve and the common peroneal nerve.
  • The common peroneal nerve is associated with the anterolateral compartment, and the tibial nerve is associated with the deep posterior compartment.
  • Based on where the patient’s numbness and tingling is, why would anyone assume that an anterolateral fasciotmy would alleviate these symptoms?

 

As she progressed to more activities… she started to report having numbness with driving and walking in addition to riding the stationary bike.

12

  • I continued to see this patient, and she kept giving more interesting information.
  • For example, she reported that she didn’t notice any symptoms on the plantar surface of her first two toes when walking in flip flops.
  • But she did notice them when wearing running shoes.
  • After this, I developed a new theory.
  • The patient’s symptoms are due to tarsal tunnel syndrome affecting the medial plantar nerve.

 

13

  • Now I decided to dive into the research a little bit more for this patient, and what I found was concerning.
  • Chad cook and his colleagues performed a systematic review on the diagnostic accuracy of foot and ankle tests.
  • And in short, found that most of them have high amounts of bias and poor diagnostic utility.

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  • So, after looking at the diagnostic utility of these tests, I also found that prevalence of tarsal tunnel syndrome affecting the medial plantar nerve is very low.
  • I decided to assess the lumbar spine.

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  • Before starting lumbar exam, the patient was sitting on the plinth table
  • And she started to experience numbness and tingling into the plantar surfaces of her first and second toes.
  • When I corrected her posture, her numbness and tingling was gone.

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  • I proceeded with a lumbar spine repeated motions examination.
  • I started with the patient in standing, and she had no symptoms prior to starting the examination. And for her, I could only produce her symptoms after she assumed  slumped position for an extended amount of time.
  • Once symptoms were produced however, they were alleviated with repeated back bends.
  • A really good reference for a repeated lumbar spine examination is an article published by Donelson and his colleagues, where if a patient centralized their symptoms with a certain direction they  are more likely to have a good outcome than those that did not centralize.

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  • Initially, I was concerned the patient had tarsal tunnel syndrome.
  • After, a Mckenzie based lumbar exam, I felt the patient had lumbar derangement.
  • It’s also possible that the patient had altered neurodynamics proximally at the lumbar spine and distally in the lower leg.

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This is a unique case because it highlights the importance of

  • Performing a proximal to distal examination
  • Ruling out any contributing factor from the spine even in post-operative cases
  • And how knowledge of the nervous system can help with your clinical reasoning

 

 

Check out our books below:

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Good Luck!

Good Luck!

The first test date for the OCS and SCS exam is tomorrow and runs thru March 18th.

Just want to say good luck to everyone.

We hope our OCS and/or SCS practice test books have helped in your preparation.

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Many of you have been studying for several months now and probably have some nervousness at this very moment.  I felt the same way last year around this time, and here was my self given pep talk that you might find helpful.

  • You’ve never studied for months in preparation for an exam and failed.
  • You developed a study plan, and followed through with it.
  • You’ve put in the effort to pass.
  • At the end of a day, it’s just a test, and only one way to measure a great clinician.
  • There’s always next year….

Best of luck everyone!

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cody

QoM: Super Bowl Edition. Peyton Manning and Cervical Radiculopathy

February QoM:

OCS/SCS Super Bowl Edition

Peyton Manning and Cervical Radiculopathy

img_3600Imagine you’re working in clinic and your next evaluation is Peyton Manning.

He Says:

“I can’t feel anything in my fingertip. It’s crazy. Well I can probably manage, but when you’re a quarterback and it’s your right hand, you’re certainly concerned as far as being able to do your job.”

Your examination reveals

  • Hypo reflexive deep tendon reflex
  • Positive upper limb tension test
  • Decreased force production when throwing a football.

 

What is the best physical therapy intervention for this patient?

A. Manipulation or mobilization of the cervical spine + chin tucks

B. Mechanical constant traction

C. Repeated cervical extension (at least 10 repetitions)

D. Mechanical intermittent traction

 

 

Which is not part of the cluster of tests used to rule in cervical radiculopathy?

A. Spurling’s

B. Distraction

C. Upper limb tension test A

D. Active cervical rotation less than 45 degrees

 

 

What visceral structure can cause radiculopathy in a C8-T1 nerve root distribution pattern?

A. Liver

B. Spleen

C. T4 Syndrome

D. Heart

 

 

FIND ANSWERS BELOW…..

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What is the best physical therapy intervention for this patient?

A. Manipulation or mobilization of the cervical spine + chin tucks

B. Mechanical constant traction

C. Repeated cervical extension (at least 10 repetitions)

You should always assess if your patient centralizes with various cervical movements, however, if you could only pick one answer this is not the best.  According the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Neck Pain published in JOSPT in 2008, centralization procedures  were given a grade C recommendation.  Centralization procedures for the spine have been more heavily studied in the lumbar spine rather than the cervical spine.  

D. Mechanical intermittent traction

centralization

 

What is the best physical therapy intervention for this patient?

A. Manipulation or mobilization of the cervical spine + chin tucks

Although manipulation and mobilization was given a grade A recommendation from the Clinical Practice Guidelines, this was in regards to patients with mechanical neck pain or headaches and not patients with radicular symptoms.  Again, this doesn’t suggest that you shouldn’t assess for the effects of your manual therapy techniques on the patient’s radicular symptoms.  

B. Mechanical constant traction

C. Repeated cervical extension (at least 10 repetitions)

D. Mechanical intermittent traction

manipulation-mob

 

 

What is the best physical therapy intervention for this patient?

A. Manipulation or mobilization of the cervical spine + chin tucks

B. Mechanical constant traction

For this patient, mechanical traction is indicated, however intermittent traction rather than constant traction.

C. Repeated cervical extension (at least 10 repetitions)

D. Mechanical intermittent traction

Answer choice D is correct.  

traction

 

 

Which is not part of the cluster of tests used to rule in cervical radiculopathy?

A. Spurling’s

Spurling’s test is classically defined as passively side bending the cervical spine and providing a caudal force through the head. Reproduction of radicular symptoms is a positive test. This test is part of the cluster.

B. Distraction

Distraction of the cervical spine results in reduction of radicular symptoms, and is part of the cluster.

C. Upper limb tension test A

Upper limb tension test A puts tension on the nerve roots with a bias for the median nerve, and is part of the cluster.

D. Active cervical rotation less than 45 degrees

Answer choice D is the best answer. Although a patient with less than 45 degrees of cervical rotation would test positive for this aspect of the cluster, it’s actually active rotation less than 60 degrees to the affected side that’s part of the cluster. Active cervical rotation less than 45 degrees is important when deciding if a patient requires a radiograph with the Canadian C-Spine rules.

PubMed Citation: Childs JD, Cleland JA, Elliott JM, Teyhen DS, Wainner RS, Whitman JM, Sopky BJ, Godges JJ, Flynn TW; American Physical Therapy Association. Neck pain: Clinical practice guidelines linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health from the Orthopedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008 Sep;38(9):A1-A34. Epub 2008 Sep 1. Erratum in: J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009 Apr;39(4):297. PubMed PMID: 18758050.

Link to Article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18758050

 

 

What visceral structure can cause radiculopathy in a C8-T1 nerve root distribution pattern?

A. Liver

Answer choice A is incorrect because the liver may cause increased pain in the right upper quadrant of a patient and refer into neck.

B. Spleen

Answer choice B is unlikely to cause symptoms mimicking cervical radiculopathy. Patients with pancreatitis commonly present with back pain and upper abdominal pain.

C. T4 Syndrome

Answer choice C is characterized by pain in the thoracic spine and paresthesias in a stocking glove pattern.

D. Heart

Myocardial infarction can often mimic radicular symptoms into the arm, and should always be on the differential diagnosis of a clinician when evaluating a client with cardiac risk factors.

PubMed Citation: Sizer PS Jr, Brismée JM, Cook C. Medical screening for red flags in the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal spine pain. Pain Pract. 2007 Mar;7(1):53-71. Review. PubMed PMID: 17305681.

Link to Article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17305681

 

 

Other notes:  As I was creating this post, it was interesting to find out more details about the oldest Manning brother.  Apparently he was just as stellar of an athlete as his younger brothers, but had to have surgery after experiencing numbness and atrophy in his right biceps.

 

Want more OCS/SCS like questions? Click here to download a free sample of ortho questions and here to download a free sample of sports questions.

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5 Question OCS/SCS Mini-Quiz

Take the Feburary OCS/SCS Mini-Quiz

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QUESITONS:

 

  1. A patient has been referred to physical therapy for cervical radiculopathy secondary to spondylosis at C5 and C6. She reports pain, paresthesias and weakness of her arm. She’s had this pain for about 4 months. Which of the following is the least likely alternative diagnosis

A. Parsonage Turner Syndrome

B. Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

C. Venous Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

D. Arterial Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

 

 

  1. All of the following can cause Paget-Schroetter Syndrome except for what?

 A. Hypertrophic anterior scalene muscle

B. Hypertrophic subclavius muscle

C. Depression of first rib

D. Cervical first rib

 

 

 

  1. In regards to Paget-Schroetter Syndrome, which vein is most commonly affected?

 A. Subclavian artery

B. Axillary artery

C. Subclavian vein

D. Axillary vein

 

 

 

  1. What is the gold standard for detecting Paget-Schroetter Syndrome?

 A. Wright’s Test

B. Angiogram

C. Venous Duplex Ultrasound

D. Adson’s Test

 

 

 

  1. What king of malignancy will most likely cause radiculopathy in a C8-T1 nerve root distribution?  

A.Tumor affecting the prostate

B. Tumor affecting the thyroid

C. Pancoast tumor affecting the lung

D. Wilm’s tumor affecting the kidney

 

 

 








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ANSWERS:

 

  1. A patient has been referred to physical therapy for cervical radiculopathy secondary to spondylosis at C5 and C6. She reports pain, paresthesias and weakness of her arm. She’s had this pain for about 4 months and it has not changed. All of the following diagnoses are can occur except for what?

A. Parsonage Turner Syndrome

Neuritis involving the brachial plexus. Commonly involves the upper trunk of the brachial plexus but has been frequently reported in the literature in other parts of the plexus. It can mimic cervical radiculopathy or a peripheral neuropathy, however, a classic sign of this condition is that pain becomes abolished, but weakness persists.

B. Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Very common type of thoracic outlet syndrome. Typically will result in weakness and paresthesias down the arm secondary to compression of the neurogenic structures in the interscalene triangle

C. Venous Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Patient may report discoloration of the arm along with weakness and pain. Typically the venous structures will be compressed in the costoclavicular junction.

D. Arterial Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

This pathology can be caused my occlusion of the subclavian artery secondary to a cervical rib or scalene hypertrophy. The patient may experience pain and paresthesais down into the arm.

 

 Check these articles out:

Monteiro Dos Santos RB, Dos Santos SM, Carneiro Leal FJ, Lins OG, Magalhães C, Mertens Fittipaldi RB. Parsonage-Turner syndrome. Rev Bras Ortop. 2015 Apr 17;50(3):336-41. doi: 10.1016/j.rboe.2015.04.002. eCollection 2015 May-Jun. PubMed PMID: 26229940; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4519651.

DeLisa LC, Hensley CP, Jackson S. Diagnosis of Paget-Schroetter Syndrome/Primary Effort Thrombosis in a Recreational Weight Lifter. Phys Ther. 2016 Sep 1. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27587803.

 

 

 

 

  1. All of the following can cause of Paget-Schroetter Syndrome except for what?

A.Hypertrophic anterior scalene muscle

B. Hypertrophic subclavius muscle

C. Depression of first rib

D. Cervical first rib

Answer choices A, B and C can all cause symptoms suggestive of Paget-Schroetter Syndrome, which can compromise the subclavian vein. Typically a cervical rib will compromise the subclavian artery.

 

 Check this article out:

DeLisa LC, Hensley CP, Jackson S. Diagnosis of Paget-Schroetter Syndrome/Primary Effort Thrombosis in a Recreational Weight Lifter. Phys Ther. 2016 Sep 1. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27587803.

 

 

 

 

  1. In regards to Paget-Schroetter Syndrome, which vein is most commonly affected?

 A. Subclavian artery

B. Axillary artery

C. Subclavian vein

Paget-Schroetter Syndrome is best described as a primary effort thrombosis that affects the subclavian vein. Most commonly affects weightlifters or upper extremity athletes.

D. Axillary vein

 

Check out this article:

DeLisa LC, Hensley CP, Jackson S. Diagnosis of Paget-Schroetter Syndrome/Primary Effort Thrombosis in a Recreational Weight Lifter. Phys Ther. 2016 Sep 1. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27587803.

 

 

 

  1. What is the gold standard for detecting Paget-Schroetter Syndrome?

A. Wright’s Test

B. Angiogram

Angiogram is the gold standard for detecting an effort thrombosis. Answer choice C is a good second choice, and is usually the first test performed for patients with this condition. However, it is not the gold standard. Answer choices A and D are clinical examination techniques that can be utilized, but are not the gold standard.  

C. Venous Duplex Ultrasound

D. Adson’s Test

 

 Check this article out:

DeLisa LC, Hensley CP, Jackson S. Diagnosis of Paget-Schroetter Syndrome/Primary Effort Thrombosis in a Recreational Weight Lifter. Phys Ther. 2016 Sep 1. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27587803.

 

 

 

 

  1. What king of malignancy will most likely cause radiculopathy in a C8-T1 nerve root distribution?

A. Tumor affecting the prostate

B. Tumor affecting the thyroid

C. Pancoast tumor affecting the lung

Metastases do not commonly occur in the cervical region compared to other areas of the spine. Common tumors that metastasize to the spine are tumors located in the prostate, breast, kidney, thyroid, and lungs. A good way to remember common tumors that metastasize to the spine is to memorize the pneumonic Lead Kettle (PB KTL). Pancoast tumor forms at the superior aspect of the lung and pushes on the C8-T1 nerve roots as it increases in size at the thoracic inlet. This tumor commonly occurs in individuals that are over 50 years old and have a history of smoking. Most will report shoulder pain and rarely have pulmonary symptoms. Often times it is misdiagnosed.

D. Wilm’s tumor affecting the kidney

 

Check this article out: 

Arcasoy SM, Jett JR. Superior pulmonary sulcus tumors and Pancoast’s syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1997 Nov 6;337(19):1370-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 9358132.

 

 

 

Want more questions?

Download a free sample of PT Ortho Questions or PT Sports Questions:

 

 

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QoM: Deadliest Catch

House keeping items:

  • Our paper back version of our book has now dropped in price
  • Now it is only $29.99

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Download free sample of book:

Click on cover to download.

Now for the QoM

  • After working a full day, you sit on the couch and turn on the Discovery channel.
  • The show The Deadliest Catch is on, and you see that one of the deckhands has collapsed to the ground.
  • All of a sudden his elbows and wrists become locked into flexion and his hips and knees become extended.
  • Refer to YouTube video by clicking here.

What is the best term of the posture the deckhand assumed?

A. Decorticate rigidity

B. Posture assumed with lower motor neuron injury

C. Decerebrate rigidity

D. Posture assumed with damage to midbrain or pons

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Scroll down to see the correct answer choice and explanation.

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  • After working a full day, you sit on the couch and turn on the Discovery channel.
  • The show The Deadliest Catch is on, and you see that one of the deckhands has collapsed to the ground.
  • All of a sudden his elbows and wrists become locked into flexion and his hips and knees become extended.
  • Refer to YouTube video by clicking here.

What is the best term of the posture the deckhand assumed?

A. Decorticate rigidity

  • The posture in this case is suggestive of complications with the corticospnal tracts above the level of the midbrain causing flexion of the elbows and wrist, and extension of the lower extremities.  
  • Damage to the corticospinal tracts is typically referred to as upper motor neuron syndrome.
  • Check this video out of a soccer player experiencing decorticate rigidity after getting hit in the head by a soccer ball.  

B. Posture assumed with lower motor neuron injury

  • The postures described in this case are more associated with an upper motor neuron injury rather than a lower motor neuron injury.
  • Lower motor neuron deficits are typically characterized by weakness, decreased deep tendon reflexes, decreased tone, muscle atrophy, and fasciculations.

C. Decerebrate rigidity

  • Brain stem damage at or below the level of the midbrain.
  • Decerebrate rigidity typically occurs when there is a lesion of the brainstem above the vestibular nucleus.
  • Head/neck, arms and legs will be extended and toes will point downward.
  • Damage at this level will inhibit flexed postures from occurring and cause extension of both the upper and lower extremities.
  • Check this video out of a football player experiencing decerebrate rigidity after scoring a touchdown.

D. Posture assumed with damage to midbrain or pons

  • This is a potential answer choice, however answer choice A is more appropriate as lesions or complications tend to occur above the level of the midbrain when decorticate posture is identified.

 

Study hard.

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cody

img_3600

 

QoM: Tiger Woods and Lumbar Disc Herniation

January 2017

 In 2014, Tiger Woods had his first lumbar micro discectomy. What is the most likely lumbar level(s) the surgery was performed at?

A. L1-L2 and/or L2-L3

B. L2-L3 and/or L3-L4

C. L3-L4 and/or L4-L5

D. L4-L5 and/or L5-S1

Scroll down for answer and details.

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In 2014, Tiger Woods had his first lumbar micro discectomy. What is the most likely lumbar level(s) the surgery was performed at?

A. L1-L2 and/or L2-L3

B. L2-L3 and/or L3-L4

C. L3-L4 and/or L4-L5

D. L4-L5 and/or L5-S1

 

The most common levels for a disc herniation to occur are at the L4-L5 and/or L5-S1 disc levels.

 

Dohrmann et al 2015

  • Evaluated the literature in 2015 for all subjects who underwent an operation for lumbar disc herniation.
  • Of 39,048 subjects, the most common level of disc herniation was L4-L5 and L5-S1, respectively.

 

lofldh

 

The majority of lumbar disc herniations do not require surgery.

 

Indications for Lumbar Micro discectomy

  • Cauda equina syndrome
  • Significant motor weakness
  • Intractable pain
  • Failed conservative treatment
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    • Physical therapy for 8-12 weeks
    • Epidural Injection

 

marchtiger

 

 

Tiger Woods had a discectomy in 2014, and return to play 12 weeks later.

 

 

12wt

 

 

 

Phases of Rehab after Lumbar Discectomy:

 

returns

 

Phase 1: Post operative phase

  • Activity modification
  • Log roll transfers
  • Abdominal setting
  • Gluteal sets
  • Ankle pumps

 

Phase 2: Protected Mobilization phase

  • Abdominal and lumbar stabilization exercises in unloaded position
  • Modalities
  • Neural mobilization
  • Decrease fear of movement

 

Phase 3: Neutral Stabilization

  • Address muscle imbalances
  • Progress exercises from unloaded to loaded position
  • Initiate lumbar ROM

 

Phase 4: Dynamic stabilization

  • LE strengthening
  • Dynamic movements
  • Progress stabilization exercises

 

Phase 5: Sports specifics activities

  

 

So what are the outcomes for other elite athletes?

A recent systematic review by Dr. Reiman and his colleagues in BJSM found that not all athletes return to sport at the same level of play as before surgery.

 

In another systematic review on elite athletes there was differences in performance levels after surgery based on the sport played.

 

 

up1

Outcomes for Elite Athletes (CORR 2014)

  • A systematic review was performed on outcomes for elite athletes after micro discectomy.
  • 450 athletes were identified in various sports.
    • 36% were from the NFL
    • 16% from the NBA
    • 28% from NHL
    • 19% from the MLB,
    • Less than 1% of the 450 athletes included various Olympic athletes, martial artists, sailors and a ballerina.

 

yearsafter-md

 

Number of Years playing after Micro Discectomy

  • 8 years for MLB players
  • 1 years for NFL players
  • 6 years for NHL players

 

 

 md

 Games played after surgery

  • 232 games for MLB players
  • 36 games for NFL players
  • 129 games for NHL players

 

 

 mlb

 Difference between Non-op and Op for MLB players

  • Non-operative treatment of disc herniation returned to play at 3.6 months
  • Operative returned at 8.7 months.

 

 

 Performance

  • Only 3 articles reported on performance measures after lumbar disc herniation
  • Hockey players achieved 65%of performance measures from baseline after micro discectomy
  • Where as football players had improved performance >100% of their baseline
  • Earhart et al in 2012 found there was a sig. decrease in performance at 1 year after surgery in MLB.
  • No difference was found between operative and non operative cohorts in the NBA

 

 

Studies in this systematic review consisted mainly of low level III and IV evidence, however it could help elite athletes make decisions on weather or not to pursue surgery.

 

Check out this link to the BJSM podcast discussing Tiger Woods.

 

Also, if you’re studying for the OCS exam, check out our book with over 200 multiple-choice questions.

  • Only $9.99 on the Kindle App
    • Download onto phone or desktop
  • Paper back will drop in price very soon

 

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Post written by Cody J. Mansfield

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